Shortly after the Arab [[Spring]] broke out at the tail end of 2010, two narratives took hold in Arab world and Western world toward it. [[Optimists]] hailed a region-wide birth of democracy and they started to aspire the notion of getting rid of some of the despotic regiemes that have beein ruling them for decades. A large group of [[pessimists]] on the other hand expreessed counter views to the effectivness of revolutions. Some of them express their fears that revolutions are replacing the secular tyrants Regiems with even more repressive and strict Islamist regimes. Others demostrate that the chaos and destruction that persisted as results of revolutions are unmatched price for the quest for democracy. The [[ western world]] also supports the cause of the Arab Springs thought its official perspectives toward the issue is highly political. Western intellectualism also agrees with the grounds of Arab people demostrations such as the quest for equity and political and economic reformations. The Arab Spring isn’t one thing. Many countries in the [[Middle East]] and [[North Africa]] are experiencing wrenching change, but each affected country is moving in different and sometimes opposing directions. Each has its own history, its own narrative.* ​Optimists are vital provocatives to the outburst of revolutions against tyrinical rulers. Usually, political dissents and intellectuals such as [[writers]] and thinkers are mostly aware of the grim political atmosphere in the country they live in. So, we see these people as the first who call for political reformation , or they sometimes call for [[revolting]] against the regimes when prospects of changes are impossible. In the Arab world, advocates of the revolutions emphasised the necessity of reform and change. Therefore, huge numbers of <a href="">protesters</a>, men and <a href="">women</a> even <a href="">children</a> decided to march in the streets and spend days and nights in quest for democracy. At times of mobalization, those poeple and some of them are still full of hope and positive aspirations toward their future A notable sector of Arab people disaaproved what is called "Arab [[Spring]]." These people justify their postions by claiming that this spring has brought destruction and backwardness to Arab countries. This spirit can be traced in many of Arab intellectuals' [[writings]]in which they express the feeling og despare, confusion and indecisivness toward the circumstances that manifested themselves during and after revolutions. Howeveer, this trend seems to be [[universal]] where previous advocates of revolutions retreated from there supportive standpoint toward them because the real outcomes of the revolutions refute the utopian outlook the advocates looked forward in post-revolution state. Those who oppose Arab Spring refer to the amount homeless people and the number of deaths that resulted from these revolutions. These people also believe that people's aspirations and needs could be achieved gradually with no needs for protesting and hindering the progress of the country. Some other group of those who stand against changing the political regime have some fears of the alternatives that will hold power next. Precisely, advocates of secular and liberal states are afraid of the possibility for the severly conservative Islamic sects to grip power, which will be used against them as liberals argue. Double-click this passage to edit it.It is widely agreed on that Arab Spring has its roots in Tunise where the young man,<a href="">Mohammad Boazizi</a>, burned himself out of despar that resulted from his inability to find a secured and proper life. Generally speaking, Arab Spring in Arab countries in the African continent is different from [[Middle East]]. Algeria has not witnessed real protests or confrontation between the state and the public. <a href=" ">Morocco</a> also responded quiclky to its people needs by undertaking quick and urgent political reformation. <a href="">Egypt</a> also witnessed less intensed and cruel revolution at earlier stages, but after the protester succeeded in dethroning the old regime, the country was divided upon itself. However,<a href="">Egyptian protesters</a> showed strong stamina and civility in their demonstrations, which culminated in the removal of Hussini Mubarek regime which ruled them for more that 40 years. On the other hand, Libya a bloody spring. Moa'mmar Al Ghathafi refused sternly to abdicate. His abstination and the public's determination resulted in many massacres in which many Libyans lost their lives. Not only this, Al Ghathafi's <a href="">orragance</a> made him deny the existance of a Lybian nation. He also claimed that protesters are in fact drugs addicts, so they are unconscious of what they are doing. In this way, Al Ghathafi also the existence of a mindful and conscious Libyan individual who has some aspirations that he yearns to accomplish. Usually [[spring season]] bespeaks of hope, rebirth, and blossomings after the gloomy and cold days of winter. I wonder about the person who coined the term of "Arab Spring" and attributed it to describe Arab people mobalization against their rulers. I am sure that it was carefully chosen, but after some intellectuals and normal people started debating the suitability of the term as long as they have been experiencing the outcomes of mobalizations and how they back fired. For these people, it would be more effective to replace the word "spring" with <a href="">autumn</a> since it is the more sutable word the best desribes the desparate and gloomy atmosphere that prevailed the Arab scene in countries where mobalizations still brewing and in other countires where people live post-revolutions era. Western official reponse to Arab Spring is highly politically-oriented. Most of western countries <a href="">leaders</a> support the cause of Arab people demonstrations that call for disseminating democracy and undertaking advancment in public servives. This standpoint stems from these officials'understanding of the factors that inflamed this movement in Arab World. Furthermore, <a href="">Noam Chomsky </a> remarks that Arab Spring a significant historical development. He addresses the issue within an economic framework and that economic factors and underdeveloped circumstances in Egypt as an example are primal movers of the people to protest besides the political dictatorship. Interestingly enough, I found a western blogger or essayist named Austin Allen who suggests that Percy Shelley's poem “[[Masque]]" actually "inspired the Arab Spring." This was written in response to the Peterloo Massacre of 1819, in which British troops attacked a defenseless crowd of citizen protesters. Ode to Spring Frederick Seidel, 1936 I can only find words for. And sometimes I can’t. Here are these flowers that stand for. I stand here on the sidewalk. I can’t stand it, but yes of course I understand it. Everything has to have meaning. Things have to stand for something. I can’t take the time. Even skin-deep is too deep. I say to the flower stand man: Beautiful flowers at your flower stand, man. I’ll take a dozen of the lilies. I’m standing as it were on my knees Before a little man up on a raised Runway altar where his flowers are arrayed Along the outside of the shop. I take my flames and pay inside. I go off and have sexual intercourse. The woman is the woman I love. The room displays thirteen lilies. I stand on the surface. ​one of the best examples that underscores the strong connection between writers and revolutions is William Wordsword's The Prelude (1850). In this long poem, Wordsworth shows his strong adherence to the cause of the French Revolution. " [...] 'Twas in truth an hour Of universal ferment; mildest men Were agitated; and commotions, strife Of passion and opinion, filled the walls Of peaceful houses with unique sounds. The soil of common life, was, at that time, Too hot to tread upon." (The Prelude, ix, 163-9) What is stiking is that the poem itself in diffirent position also reveals the transformation of Wordsworth's standpoint to the idea of revolution. He turned to be one of the many [[pessimists]] who tend to be restrained and conservative against reformation and change. My Arab Spring that Never Was – A Poem By Nasser Barghouty I thought in numbers we could say what is or what was right placards drawn with blood and no fright young and old stay the course street by street and night after night where the stars have turned a page and time its stray discourse and the whole world a stage on my spring that never was Tell me if I am right if you happen to see my black from my white tell me if might had always made right in this Arab spring of mine that never was tell me if you can tell me if history or geography or a crude stereography have me and my story and our Arab glory in their jaws or will it in my night and in my endless flight ever shine? Tell me if you can Red is the new color of my sight not white red is the new word on the streets of my Arab spring that never was red is the new color of my sight or have I erred tell me if you can what have I stirred? in this history this geography this Arab glory? that turns right into wrong weak into strong and what is whole into the absurd? is it darker is it bright? Tell me if you can Three years and counting from Benghazi to Baghdad have we forgotten how to count? or have we laid to rest all that which together we have breathed and dreamt and defended stout tell me if you can was it sane or was it mad to heed that call for my Arab spring that never was to drop all for what was unsheathed and for that which was just and a cause tell me if you can I was there in every corner and every turn in every broken bone and every moan I was there I touched and kissed every tear year after year one fading smile after the other one hopeless yearn after another I was there street, capital, and conference I no longer dare to speak to face or stare at my Arab spring that never was here or there. Wake up mother [country] Wake up Time has run out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . We will rise up. Dying in the stubborn hungry earth. We will fight hard. Against the hungry earth. From Maishe Maponya's "The Hungry Earth" "[…] now, sole register that these things were, Two solitary greetings have I heard, 'Good morrow, Citizen!' a hollow word, As if a dead man spoke it. Yet despair Touches me not, though pensive as a bird Whose vernal coverts winter hath laid bare." William Wordsworth's "he Prelude" Wordsworsh here outlines the situation in France when he visited it in 1802 during the Napoleonic liquidation of the French Revolution gains. Double-click this passage to edit it.Double-click this passage to edit it. The Masque of Anarchy I. As I lay asleep in Italy, There came a voice from over the sea, And with great power it forth led me To walk in the visions of Poesy. II. I met Murder on the way-- He had a mask like Castlereagh-- Very smooth he look'd yet grim; Seven bloodhounds followed him: III. All were fat; and well they might Be in admirable plight, For one by one, and two by two, He tossed them humanhearts to chew, Which from his wide cloak he drew. IV. Next came Fraud, and he had on, Like Lord E--, an ermined gown; His big tears, for he wept well, Turned to mill-stones as they fell; V. And the little children, who Round his feet played to and fro, Thinking every tear a gem, Had their brains knockedout by, them. VI. Clothed with the * * as with light, And the shadows of the night, Like * * * next, Hypocrisy, On a crocodile rode by. VII. And many more Destructions played In this ghastly masquerade, All disguised, even to the eyes, Like bishops,lawyers, peers, or spies. VIII. Last came Anarchy; he rode On a white horse, splashed with blood; He was pale even to the lips, Like Death in the Apocalypse. IX. And be wore a kingly crown; And in his grasp a sceptre shone; And on his brow this mark I saw-- I am God, and King, and Law! X. With a pace stately and fast, Over English land he past, Trampling to a mire of blood The adoringmultitude. XI. And a mighty troop around, With their trampling shook the ground, Waving each a bloody sword, For the service of their Lord. XII. And with glorious triumph, they Rode through England proud and gay, Drunk as with intoxication Of the wine of desolation. XIII. O'er fields and towns, from sea to sea, Passed the pageant swift and free, Tearing up, and trampling down, Till they came to London: town. D XIV. And each dweller, panic-stricken, Felt his heart with terror sicken, Hearing the tempestuous cry Of the triumph of Anarchy. XV. For with pomp to meet him came, Clothed in arms like blood and flame, Ile hired murderers who did sing, Thou art God, and Law, and King. XVI. "We have waited, weak and lone, For thy coming, Mighty One! Our purses are empty, our swords are cold, Give us glory, and blood, and gold." XVII. Lawyers and priests, a motley crowd, To the earth their pale brows bowed Like a bad prayer not over loud, Whispering-"Thou art Law and God." D 2 Then all cried with one accord, "Thou art King, and God, and Lord; Anarchy, to thee we bow, Be thy name made holy now!" XIX. And Anarchy, the skeleton, Bowed and grinned to every one, As well as if his education, Had cost ten millions to the nation. xx. For he knew the palaces Of our kings were nightly his; His the sceptre, crown, and globe, And the gold-in-woven robe. XXI. So he sent his slaves before To seize upon the Bank and Tower, And was proceeding with intent To meet his pensioned parliament, XXII. When one fled past, a maniac maid, And her name was Hope, she said: But she looked more like Despair; And she cried out in the air; XXVII. "My father, Time, is weak and grey With waiting for a better day; See how idiot-like he stands, Fumbling with his palsied hands! XXIV. "He has had child after child, And the dust of death is piled Over every one but me-- Misery! oh, Misery!" XXV. Then she lay down in the street, Right before the horses' feet, Expecting with a patient eye, Murder, Fraud, and Anarchy. XXVI. When between her and her foes A mist, a light, an image rose, Small at first, and weak and frail. Like the vapour of the vale: XXVII. Till, as clouds grow on the blast, Like tower-crown'd giants striding fast, And glare with lightnings as they fly, And speak in thunder to the sky, XVIII. It grew -- a shape arrayed in mail Brighter than the viper's scale, And upborne on wings whose grain Was as the light of sunny rain. XXIX. On its helm, seen far away, A planet, like the morning's, lay; And those plumes it light rained through, Like a shower of crimson dew, XXX. With step as soft as wind it passed O'er the heads of men -- so fast That they knew the presence there, And looked-and all was empty air. XXXI. As flowers beneath the footstep waken, As stars from night's loose hair are shaken,, As waves arise when loud winds call, Thoughts sprung where'er that step did fall. XXXII. And the prostrate multitude Looked -- and ankle deep in blood, Hope, that maiden most serene, Was walking with a quiet mien: XXXIII. And Anarchy, the ghastly birth, Lay dead earth upon the earth; The Horse of Death, tameless as wind, Fled, and with his hoofs did grind To dust the murderers thronged behind. XXXIV. A rushing light of clouds and splendour, A sense, awakening and yet tender, Was heard and felt -- and at its close These words of joy and fear arose: XXXV. (As if their own indignant earth, Which gave the sons of England birth, Had felt their blood upon her brow, And shuddering with a mother's throe, XXXVI. Had turned every drop of blood, By which her face had been bedewed, To an accent unwithstood, As if her heart had cried aloud:) XXXVII. "Men of England, Heirs of Glory, Heroes of unwritten story, Nurslings of one mighty mother, Hopes of her, and one another, XXXVIII. "Rise, like lions after slumber, In unvanquishable number, Shake your chains to earth like dew, Which in sleep had fall'n on you. XXXIX. "What is Freedom? Ye can tell That which Slavery is too well, For its very name has grown To an echo of your own. XL. "'Tis to work, and have such pay ,As just keeps life from day to day In your limbs, as in a cell For the tyrants' use to dwell: XLI. "So that ye for them are made, Loom, and plough, and sword, and spade; With or without your own will, bent To their defense and nourishment. XLII. "'Tis to see your children weak With their mothers pine and peak; When the winter winds are bleak: They are dying whilst I speak. XLIII. "'Tis to hunger for such diet, As the rich man in his riot Casts to the fat dogs that lie Surfeiting beneath his eye. XLIV. "'Tis to let the Ghost of Gold Take from toil a thousand fold, More than e'er its substance could In the tyrannies of old: XLV. "Paper coin--that forgery Of the title deeds, which ye Hold to something of the worth Of the inheritance of Earth. E XLVI. "'Tis to be a slave in Soul, And to bold no strong controul. Over your own wills, but be All that others make of ye. XLVII. "And at length when ye complain, With a murmur weak and vain, 'Tis to see the tyrant's crew Ride over your wives and you: Blood is on the grass like dew. XLVIII. "Then it is to feel revenge, Fiercely thirsting to exchange Blood for blood-and wrong for wrong: DO NOT THUS, WHEN YE ARE STRONG. XLIX. "Birds find rest in narrow nest, When-weary of the winged quest; Beasts find fare in woody lair, When storm and snow are in the air. E 2 L. "Asses, swine, have litter spread, And with fitting food are fed; All things have a home but one: Thou, oh Englishman, hast none! LI. "This is Slavery-savage men, Or wild beasts within a den, Would endure not as ye do: But such ills they never knew. LII. "What art thou, Freedom? Oh! could Slaves Answer from their living graves This demand, tyrants would flee Like a dream's dim imagery. LIII. Thou art not, as impostors say, A shadow soon to pass away, A superstition, and a name Echoing from the eaves of Fame. LIV. "For the labourer thou art bread, And a comely table spread, From his daily labour come, In a neat and happy home. LV. "Thou art clothes, and fire, and food For the trampled multitude: NO-in countries that are free Stich starvation cannot be, As in England now we see. LVI. "To the rich thou art. a check; When his foot is on the neck Of his victim; thou dost make That he treads upon a snake. LVII. "Thou art Justice--ne'er for gold May thy righteous laws be sold, As laws are in England:--thou Sheild'st alike the high and low. "Thou art Wisdom-Freedom never Dreams that God will damn for ever All who think those things untrue, Of which priests make such ado LIX. "Thou art Peace-never by thee Would blood and treasure wasted be, As tyrants wasted them, when all Leagued to quench thy flame in Gaul, LX. "What if English toil and blood Was poured forth-, even as a flood! It availed,--oh Liberty! To dim --- but not extinguish thee. LXI. "Thou art Love--the rich have kist Thy feet, and like him following Christ, Give their substance to the free, And through the rough world follow thee. LXII. "Oh turn their wealth to arms, and make War for thy beloved sake, On wealth and war and fraud: whence they Drew the power which is their prey. LXIII. "Science, and Poetry, and Thought, Are thy lamps; they make the lot Of the dwellers in a cot So serene, they curse it not. LXIV. "Spirit, Patience, Gentleness, All that can adorn and bless, Art thou: let deeds, not words, express Thine exceeding loveliness. LXV. "Let a great assembly be Of the fearless, of the free, On some spot of English ground, Where the plains stretch wide around. LXVI. "Let the blue sky overhead, The green earth, on which ye tread, All that must eternal be, Witness the solemnity. LXVII. "From the corners uttermost Of the bounds of English coast; From every but, village, and town, Where those who live and suffer, moan For others' misery and their own: LXVIII. "From the workhouse and the prison, Where pale as corpses newly risen, Women, children, young, and old, Groan for pain, and weep for cold; LXIX. "From the haunts of daily life, Where is waged the daily strife With common wants and common cares, Which sow the human heart with tares; LXX. "Lastly, from the palaces, Where the murmur of distress Echoes, like the distant sound Of a wind alive around; LXXI. "Those prison-halls of wealth and fashion, Where some few feel such compassion For those who groan, and toil, and wait, As must make their brethren pale; LXXII. "Ye who suffer woes untold, Or to feel, or to behold Your lost country bought and sold With a price of blood and gold; LXXIII. "Let a vast assembly be, And with great solemnity Declare with measured words, that ye Are, as God has made ye, free! LXXIV. "Be your strong and simple words Keen to wound as sharpened swords, And wide as targes let them be, With their shade to cover ye. LXXV. Let the tyrants pour around With a quick and startling sound, Like the loosening of a sea, Troops of armed emblazonry. LXXVI. "Let the charged artillery drive, Till the dead air seems alive With the clash of clanging wheels, And the tramp of horses' heels. LXXVII. "Let the fixed bayonet Gleam with sharp desire to wet Its bright point in English blood, Looking keen as one for food. F LXXVIII. "Let the horsemen's scimitars Wheel and flash, like sphereless stars, Thirsting to eclipse their burning In a sea of death and mourning. LXXIX. "Stand ye calm and resolute, Like a forest close and mute, With folded arms, and looks which are Weapons of an unvanquished war. LXXX. "And let Panic, who outspeeds The career of armed steeds, Pass, a disregarded shade, Thro' your phalanx indismay'd. The three stanzas next ensuing are printed in italics, not because they are better, or indeed so well written, as some of the rest, but as marking out the sober, lawful, and charitable mode of proceeding advocated and anticipated by this supposed reckless innovator. 1, "Pus- obedience " he certainly had not; but here follows a picture and a recommendation of "non-resistance, " in all its glory. The mingled emotion and dignity of it is admirably, expressed in the second line of stanza eighty-five. Let churches millitant read it, and blush to call the author no Christian ! LXXXI. "Let the laws of your own land, Good or ill, between ye stand, Hand to hand, and foot to foot, Arbiters of the dispute. LXXXII. "The old laws of England--they Whose reverend heads with age are grey, Children of a wiser day; And whose solemn voice must be Thine own echo--Liberty! LXXXIII. "On those who first should violate Such sacred heralds in their state, Rest the blood that must ensue, And it will not rest on you. LXXXIV. "And if then the tyrants dare, Let them ride among you there; Slash, and stab, and maim, and hew; What they like, that let them do. LXXXV. "With folded arms and steady eyes, And little fear and less surprise, Look upon them as they stay Till their rage hasdied away: LXXXVI. "Then they will return with shame, To the place from which they came, And the blood thus shed will speak In hotblushes on their cheek, LXXXVII. "Every woman in the land Will point at them as they stand They will hardly dare to greet Their acquaintance in the street: LXXXVIII. "And the bold, true warriors, Who have hugged Danger in wars, Will turn to those who would be free Ashamed of such base company: LXXXIX. "And that slaughter to the nation Shall steam up like inspiration, Eloquent, oracular, A volcano heard afar: XC. "And these words shall then become Like Oppressions thundered doom, Ringing through each heart and brain, Heard again--again--again. XCI. Rise like lions after slumber In unvanquishable NUMBER! Shake your chains to earth, like dew Which in sleep had fall'n on you: YE ARE MANY-THEY ARE FEW. THE END.